Are you an ex-pat living in Quebec and looking to improve your French language skills? Learning French in Quebec can be a challenging but rewarding experience. 6-essential-tips-for-learning-french-as-an-expat-in-quebec
Here are six essential tips to help you improve your language skills and immerse yourself in the culture.
1. Immerse Yourself in the Language
The best way to improve your French skills is to immerse yourself in the language. Try to use French as much as possible in your daily life. This means speaking with locals, listening to French radio, watching French TV shows, and reading French books and newspapers.
2. Take a French Course
Enrolling in a French language course is an excellent way to improve your language skills. Consider taking a course through a local college or university, or with a private tutor. This will provide you with structured lessons and an opportunity to practice your French with others.
3. Practice with Native Speakers
One of the most effective ways to improve your French speaking and listening skills is to practice with native speakers. Join a conversation group or find a language exchange partner to help you practice your skills.
4. Learn the Local Slang
Quebec French has its own unique vocabulary and expressions that may differ from other forms of French. Learning these local nuances will help you communicate more effectively with Quebecois. Make sure to familiarize yourself with the local slang to help you understand and be understood.
5. Be Patient and Persistent
Learning a new language takes time and effort. Be patient with yourself and don’t give up if you encounter difficulties. Keep practicing and seeking out opportunities to improve your skills. Consistency and persistence will pay off in the long run.
6. Explore Quebec’s Culture
Finally, immerse yourself in Quebec’s culture to deepen your understanding of the language. Attend local events, festivals, and concerts, and learn about the history and traditions of Quebec. This will help you appreciate the language and its significance in Quebec’s culture.
In conclusion, learning French as an expat in Quebec requires time, effort, and a willingness to immerse yourself in the language and culture. By following these tips, you’ll be well on your way to improving your French language skills and enjoying all that Quebec has to offer.
Traveling to a foreign country can be an exciting experience, but communication can be a significant barrier, especially when you don’t speak the local language. However, there are many ways to overcome this challenge and communicate effectively. communicating-effectively-while-traveling-in-a-foreign-country
In this blog post, we will discuss some tips to help you communicate while traveling in a foreign country.
1. Learn Basic Phrases
One of the essential things you can do to communicate while traveling in a foreign country is to learn some basic phrases in the local language. These include greetings, asking for directions, ordering food, and saying thank you. Learning these phrases will help you interact with the locals and make your trip more enjoyable.
2. Use a Translation App
A translation app can be a lifesaver when you’re traveling in a foreign country. There are many translation apps available that allow you to type in what you want to say, and the app will translate it for you. Some apps even allow you to speak on the phone, and it will translate your speech in real time.
3. Use Body Language
Body language is a universal language that can help you communicate even if you don’t speak the local language. Smiling, nodding, pointing, and gesturing can help you get your message across.
4. Carry a Phrasebook
A phrasebook is a handy tool to have when traveling to a foreign country. It contains common phrases and words that you can use in everyday situations. Phrasebooks are available in various languages and can be purchased online or at local bookstores.
5. Use Visual Aids
Using pictures or drawings can be a useful way to communicate when you don’t speak the local language. For example, if you’re looking for a restaurant, draw a picture of a plate of food and show it to someone.communicating-effectively-while-traveling-in-a-foreign-country
6. Seek out Help
Don’t be afraid to ask for help when traveling in a foreign country. Locals are often happy to assist visitors, and you may be surprised at how helpful they can be. You can also seek help from your hotel staff, tour guides, or even other travelers who may speak the local language.communicating-effectively-while-traveling-in-a-foreign-country
Communication is an essential part of any travel experience, and it can be challenging when you don’t speak the local language. However, there are many ways to overcome this challenge, such as learning basic phrases, using translation apps, using body language, carrying a phrasebook, using visual aids, and seeking help from locals. By following these tips, you can effectively communicate while traveling in a foreign country, enhance your travel experience, and create unforgettable memories.
Living in Switzerland: Which language should you learn?
Switzerland is a beautiful country that is famous for its stunning mountain ranges, picturesque lakes, and charming cities. If you’re planning to move to Switzerland, it’s important to learn one of the country’s official languages to help you integrate into the local community and make new friends. In this blog post, we’ll discuss which language you should learn based on the region you plan to live in.
If you plan to live in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, it’s best to learn German. German is the most widely spoken language in Switzerland, with over 60% of the population speaking it. Learning German will not only help you communicate with locals, but it will also give you an advantage in the job market as most job vacancies require fluency in German.
If you plan to live in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, it’s best to learn French. French is the second most widely spoken language in Switzerland, with around 23% of the population speaking it. French is one of the official languages in this region, and learning it will help you integrate into the local community and culture.
French Online Courses offered by Here and Now – The French Institute
Learning a new language can be challenging, especially if you’re not in the country where the language is spoken. However, thanks to technology, you can now learn a new language from anywhere in the world. Here and Now – The French Institute offers online French courses that are perfect for anyone looking to learn French.
Their online courses are designed for all levels of learners, from complete beginners to advanced learners. The courses are taught by experienced French teachers who use interactive and engaging methods to help students learn the language.
Beginner level courses
The E-DFP A1 & A2 courses are designed for beginners who are just starting to learn French. These courses cover basic French vocabulary and grammar, pronunciation, and communication skills. By the end of the course, learners will be able to communicate in everyday situations, such as introducing themselves, ordering food in a restaurant, and asking for directions.
One of the advantages of these courses is that they are live group sessions taught by experienced French teachers. The classes are also recorded, so students have lifetime access to the content without any extra charges. This means that learners can review the lessons as many times as they need to, which is helpful for reinforcing what they have learned and improving their French skills.
Intermediate level courses
The EDFP B1 & B2 courses are designed for intermediate speakers who have already learned the basics of French. These courses focus on improving the learner’s French skills in areas such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking. By the end of the course, learners will be able to communicate fluently in French, understand the French media, and interact with French-speaking people in a professional setting.
Similar to the beginner-level courses, the EDFP B1 & B2 courses are live group sessions taught by experienced French teachers. The classes are recorded, so students have lifetime access to the content without any extra charges. This means that learners can review the lessons as many times as they need to, which is helpful for reinforcing what they have learned and improving their French skills.
It should be kept in mind that each course is designed to help learners achieve their specific goals, whether it’s to improve their French for personal reasons or for professional purposes. The courses are also flexible, allowing learners to study at their own pace and from the comfort of their own homes.
Learning one of Switzerland’s official languages is essential if you plan to move to the country. Depending on the region you plan to live in, you should learn either German, French, Italian, or Romansh. Here and Now – The French Institute offers online French courses that are perfect for anyone looking to learn French. Their courses are flexible, engaging, and taught by experienced French teachers. Depending on where you plan to live in Switzerland, German or French may be the language you need to focus on. Here and Now – The French Institute’s E-DFP A1 & A2 and EDFP B1 & B2 courses are excellent options for anyone looking to learn French. The live group sessions taught by experienced French teachers, coupled with lifetime access to recorded content, make these courses flexible, engaging, and effective.
Passé composé is one of the most frequently used tenses in French, and its formation serves as the basis for many other tenses in the language. Therefore, understanding passé composé is crucial in comprehending the deeper and more complex structures of French grammar.
Passé composé is used to express an action that was completed at some time in the past or at the time of speech. It is the equivalent of the present perfect tense and past tense in English. Let’s delve into the learning process by examining “Les trois règles d’or du Passé Composé” or “The 3 Golden Rules of Passé Composé.”
Golden Rule 1: Formation
Passe compose is formed by placing the subject + auxiliary verb + past participle + object. The auxiliary verbs used are être and avoir, which are also known as helping verbs. As the name suggests (passé composé), it is a composite of avoir or être, the auxiliary verb followed by the past participle – participe passé. Assuming that you know the conjugation of the verbs avoir and être in the present tense, let’s move onto the formation.
Note that if you are a beginner, you may encounter difficulties in conjugating verbs and past participles in French. To overcome this, I recommend watching videos on French conjugation and past participle in French.
Formula for sentence structure in French is subject + verb + object. It is no different for passé composé; however, we need two verbs to form the sentence. Subject, verb 1 (auxiliary verb/supporting verb), verb 2 (action verb), and object.
J’ai parlé à Jean.
Tu as fini ton projet.
Il est allé au bureau.
Elle est partie pour le Canada.
Nous avons travaillé ensemble.
Vous êtes devenu célèbre.
Ils ont commencé à travailler.
Elles sont nées le même jour.
From these examples, you can see that either avoir or être as auxiliary verbs along with past participle are used to form passé composé. However, the question arises as to where to use avoir and where to use être. Certain action verbs need être, and others require avoir.
Golden Rule 2: The V16 Rule
The V16 rule helps us understand which auxiliary verb (avoir or être) to use. There are 16 verbs that require être as their auxiliary verb to form passé composé:
Naître (to be born)
Mourir (to die)
Aller (to go)
Venir (to come)
Revenir (to come back)
Retourner (to return)
Rentrer (to return)
Entrer (to enter)
Sortir (to go out)
Arriver (to arrive)
Partir (to leave)
Monter (to climb up)
Descendre (to climb down)
Rester (to stay)
Tomber (to fall)
Devenir (to become)
The rest of the verbs require avoir as their auxiliary verb.
How to remember these 16 verbs? There are three methods:
Method 1: If you observe the verbs and ponder over their meaning.
You may notice that they fall under two categories: verbs that denote a change in state (naître, mourir, and devenir) or the second category would be the verbs which express movement (arriver, venir, partir, sortir, descendre, monter, etc). And the only exception is Rester – to stay.
Method Nº2: La maison d’être (I am going to narrate a story about a very well known superhero. Do you know who it is? The most loved The IRON MAN)
Il est né, il est venu, il est arrivé, il est monté, il est entré, il est resté, il est sorti, il est descendu, il est tombé, il est parti, il est allé, il est retourné, il est rentré, il est revenu, il est mort et il est devenu.
Retourner/ Rentrer / Revenir
Method Nº3: Dr & Mrs Van Der Tramps
This is a popular mnemonic that will help you remember the verbs that require être as their auxiliary verb in passé composé.
Dr & Mrs Van Der Trampp is a helpful acronym, where each letter represents a verb that needs être as the auxiliary verb in passé composé.
D – Devenir (to become)
R – Revenir (to come back)
M – Monter (to climb up)
R – Rester (to stay)
S – Sortir (to go out)
V – Venir (to come)
A – Aller (to go)
N – Naître (to be born)
D – Descendre (to go down)
E – Entrer (to enter)
R – Retourner (to return)
T – Tomber (to fall)
R – Rentrer (to return)
A – Arriver
M – Mourir
P – Partir / Passer
S – (all pronominal verbs like : se revéiller, se lever, se laver, etc…)
Golden Rule Nº3: Agreement of past participle
When using avoir as the auxiliary verb, the past participle agrees in gender and number with the direct object, if it is placed before the verb.
J’ai mangé une pomme. (I ate an apple.)
In the first sentence, une pomme (an apple) is the direct object and is feminine, singular. Hence, the past participle mangé agrees with it and takes the feminine singular form.
Elle a acheté des chaussures. (She bought shoes.)
In the second sentence, des chaussures (shoes) is the direct object and is feminine, plural. Hence, the past participle acheté agrees with it and takes the feminine plural form.
When using “être” as the auxiliary verb, the past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.
Je suis allé(e) au marché. (I went to the market.)
In the first sentence, the subject je (I) is masculine, singular. Hence, the past participle allé agrees with it and takes the masculine singular form.
Nous sommes sorti(e)s ensemble. (We went out together.)
In the second sentence, the subject nous (we) is feminine, plural. Hence, the past participle sorti agrees with it and takes the feminine plural form.
In conclusion, passé composé is a very important tense in French and its formation serves as the basis for many other tenses. By following the three Golden Rules of Passé Composé, you will be able to form and use this tense correctly. Remember to practice and review regularly to improve your understanding and mastery of the language.
Let’s start with Articles Contractés. An Article Contracté is a composite of prepositions “à” or “de” with definite articles such as “le” “la” “l’” and “les.” The use of definite articles is important to remember. In French, you cannot refer to a noun without an article. We have exceptions for proper nouns like names of people or cities.
When we use the preposition “à” with the Articles Contracté, the result is “au” for masculine singular. For feminine singular it will be “à la” and “à l’” for vowel singular, and “aux” for plural. When we use the preposition “de” with the Articles Contracté, the result is “du” for masculine singular, “de la” for feminine singular, “de l’” for vowel singular, and “des” for plural.
We use Articles Contracté when we want to say “to the” or “at the” for a particular noun. This depend upon on the context. For instance, “Je vais au bureau” means “I am going to the office,” and “Je suis au bureau” means “I am at the office.”
Definition of Articles Partitifs
Now let’s move on to Articles Partitifs. An Article Partitif is a composite of just the preposition “de” with definite articles such as “le,” “la,” “l’,” and “les.” The use of Partitive Articles is to refer to an imprecise quantity when you cannot express the exact quantity.
The result of using the preposition “de” with Articles Partitifs is “du” for masculine singular, “de la” for feminine singular, “de l’” for vowel singular, and “des” for plural. However, the meaning in English is “some.”
Articles Partitifs are used to refer to an imprecise quantity. For instance, “Je voudrais du café” means “I would like to have some coffee.” We will say “Tu voudrais du jus d’orange” for”You want some orange juice.”
In conclusion, Articles Contractés and Articles Partitifs are essential in French language learning. Understanding their differences and uses is crucial to formulating sentences correctly. Remember that Articles Contractés are used when referring to a specific noun with “to the” or “at the” context. On the other hand, Articles Partitifs are used to refer to an imprecise quantity with “some” context.
If you want to learn more about French grammar or any other content related to learning the language, we invite you to regularly check out our blog.
Pronouns are a class of words that are used to replace a noun phrase that has already been mentioned or is about to be mentioned in a sentence or context. In simpler words, french pronouns are used to replace nouns. There are two types of pronouns, indefinite pronouns, and personal pronouns.
Types of Pronouns: Indefinite and Personal
Indefinite pronouns are those that have no specific referent, such as “quelqu’un,” “n’importe qui,” or “personne.” On the other hand, personal pronouns have a definite person or thing as an antecedent and function grammatically in the same way as the noun they replace. We can divide personal pronouns into subject pronouns and object pronouns.
Personal Pronouns in French
In French, personal pronouns include “je,” “tu,” “il,” and so on, which are subject pronouns used to replace a subject. Here, we will focus on personal pronouns that uniquely replace an object.
Objects are of two types, direct and indirect. We replace direct objects by pronouns such as “le,” “la,” “l’,” and “les,” while indirect objects are replaced by pronouns like “lui” and “leur.”
For example, when asking if Jean is trying to contact Sophie over the phone, the direct object is Sophie. In response to this question, we use the personal pronoun “l’,” and the answer would be “Jean l’appelle,” which means “Jean calls her.” On the other hand, when asking if Sophie is giving something to Jean, the indirect object is Jean, and the response would be “Sophie lui donne,” which means “Sophie gives it to him.”
Direct objects are replaced by pronouns – le, la, l’ et les
Indirect objects are replaced by pronouns – lui, leur
Est-ce que Jean appelle Sophie? Oui, Jean l’appelle.
Est-ce que Jean téléphone à Sophie? Oui, Jean lui téléphone.
The ground rule is that when we have a repetition of direct objects, we replace them by “le,” “la,” “l’,” or “les,” depending on the gender and number. And when we have repetition of indirect objects, we replace them by “lui” or “leur.” It is important to note that personal pronouns agree in gender and number with the noun they replace.
In conclusion, personal pronouns are an essential part of the French language, and mastering them is crucial for effective communication. Learning how to use personal pronouns correctly will not only improve your communication skills but also enhance your understanding of the language. Stay tuned for more content on learning French, and feel free to comment below if you have any specific topics you would like us to discuss.
The DIRECT and INDIRECT OBJECT, also known as COD and COI in French, are two important parts of a sentence. In a sentence, the object is the part that completes the meaning of the sentence, in addition to the subject and the verb.
The difference in between COD and COI
A reminder of the sentence structure is necessary. A sentence is composed of three elements: the subject, the verb, and the object. For example, in the sentence “Je parle français.”, “français” is the object.
In French, there are two types of objects: the Complément d’Objet Direct (COD) and the Complément d’Objet Indirect (COI). To understand both of them, let’s examine the following examples:
Direct Object(Complément d’objet direct)
Indirect Object(Complément d’objet indirect)
Jean appelle Sophie
Jean téléphone à Sophie
These two sentences have the same meaning, which is that Jean is trying to contact Sophie by phone. In the first sentence, “Sophie” is a direct object complement, while in the second sentence, “Sophie” is an indirect object complement.
A simple rule
The basic rule is simple: if there is a preposition “à” between the verb and the object, then the object is called an indirect object complement (COI). If there is no preposition between the verb and the object, then the object is a direct object complement (COD).
Let’s take some additional examples to better understand:
Sophie donne le cadeau. (Sophie gives the gift.)
Sophie donne à Jean. (Sophie gives to Jean)
Vous connaissez Charlotte Lebon ? (Do you know Charlotte Lebon ?)
Vous parlez à Charlotte Lebon ? (Do you speak to Charlotte Lebon ?)
In the first two examples, “le cadeau” is the object, but it is a COD in the first sentence and a COI in the second sentence. In the last two examples, “Charlotte Lebon” is the object, but it is a COD in the first sentence and a COI in the second sentence.
So, indirect object complements are always followed by a preposition, while there is no preposition for direct object complements.
Now that you understand the difference between COD and COI, you may be wondering how it works with pronouns. Don’t worry, our next article will cover personal pronouns COD and COI such as le, la, l’ & les & lui leur. Stay tuned!
As technology advances, there are more and more tools available for language learners. ChatGPT is one such tool, providing an opportunity for learners to practice their conversational skills, vocabulary, and grammar in multiple languages. In this article, we explore how ChatGPT can be used to enhance language learning for French, German, Spanish, and English.
Expanding one’s vocabulary is critical to learning any language. ChatGPT offers a vast database of words and phrases, making it a useful tool for language learners. To practice vocabulary building, ask ChatGPT to provide common phrases in the target language, such as “Bonjour, comment ça va?” for French. ChatGPT can provide feedback and corrections as learners practice using these phrases in context.
Mastering the grammar of a language is equally important as building vocabulary. ChatGPT can offer examples of correct grammar usage in multiple languages, helping learners identify and correct errors in their language use. For example, learners can practice Spanish verb conjugation with ChatGPT’s assistance. By using these examples in conversation with ChatGPT, learners can receive correction and explanation for the correct grammar usage.
Language learning isn’t just about words and grammar; it’s also about immersing oneself in the culture of the language. ChatGPT can provide cultural context for the language being learned, including information about history, customs, and traditions. For German learners, ChatGPT can offer information about famous festivals, such as Oktoberfest, and the Berlin Wall’s importance in German history.
Pronunciation can be one of the more challenging aspects of language learning. ChatGPT can provide audio recordings of words and phrases to help learners practice their pronunciation in multiple languages. For English learners, ChatGPT can provide audio examples of commonly mispronounced words, such as “pronunciation” or “nuclear.” By repeating the correct pronunciation with ChatGPT, learners can perfect their pronunciation.
To practice speaking and listening skills, conversational practice is necessary. ChatGPT can engage learners in conversation on a wide range of topics, in multiple languages. For Spanish learners, ChatGPT can have a back-and-forth conversation about topics that interest the learner, such as food, music, or travel. As ChatGPT provides feedback and correction, learners can improve their conversational skills.
Transition words and Passive Voice:
To maintain coherence, transition words are critical in any written text. To ensure a smooth flow of ideas, we use transition words such as ‘however’ and ‘nevertheless’ to link sentences together. Additionally, we can use the passive voice to emphasise the action rather than the person. Using the passive voice can help learners emphasise the action in a sentence, such as “Examples of commonly mispronounced words can be provided by ChatGPT.”
In conclusion, ChatGPT can be a valuable tool for language learners looking to improve their skills in French, German, Spanish, and English. Learners can use ChatGPT for vocabulary building, grammar practice, cultural immersion, pronunciation practice, and conversational practice. By using ChatGPT, learners can receive feedback and correction, enhancing their language learning experience.
Are you wondering “How to learn French for beginners?” Learning a new language can be challenging, but it’s also a fun and rewarding experience. French is a popular language choice, and with the right resources, you can quickly improve your skills. In this article, we will share some tips and resources that will help you start your French language learning journey and prepare for the DELF A1 exam.
Books for Learning French
Books are a great way to learn French, as they provide a structured approach to learning the language. Here are three popular books that can help you get started:
1.“Complete French Beginner to Intermediate Course” by Gaelle Graham This book is an excellent resource for beginners who want to learn French from scratch. It covers all the basics of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation, and includes exercises and audio recordings to help you practice.
2. “French for Dummies” by Dodi-Katrin Schmidt, Michelle M. Williams, and Dominique Wenzel This book is designed specifically for beginners who want to learn French. It covers all the basics of French grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation, and includes exercises and quizzes to help you practice.
3. “Easy French Step-by-Step” by Myrna Bell Rochester This book provides a step-by-step approach to learning French grammar and vocabulary. It includes exercises and audio recordings to help you practice and is another great option for beginners.
Online Resources for Learning French
In addition to books, there are several online resources you can use to learn French. Here are a few:
1. Duolingo: It is a popular language learning platform that provides free lessons in French. It’s a great way to get started with French and build up your vocabulary and grammar skills.
2. FrenchPod101: FrenchPod101 is a podcast-based language learning platform that provides audio and video lessons in French. It covers all aspects of the language, including grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation.
3. Memrise: Memrise is a language learning app that provides courses in French. It uses a combination of flashcards and interactive games to help you learn and practice French vocabulary and grammar.
4. E-DFP Program from HERE AND NOW – The French Institute
If you’re looking for a comprehensive French language program that covers all aspects of the language, including grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and culture, the E-DFP program from HERE AND NOW – The French Institute is a great option. This program is designed for people who want to learn French for professional purposes and offers a flexible learning schedule that can be adapted to your needs. It also provides personalized coaching and support to help you reach your language goals.
Other Online Resources from HERE AND NOW – The French Institute
In addition to the E-DFP program, HERE AND NOW – The French Institute offers a range of other online resources for learning French. These include online courses, language practice sessions, and cultural events.
Remember that learning a new language takes time and effort. It’s important to practice regularly and immerse yourself in the language as much as possible. By using these resources and staying committed to your studies, you can achieve your goal of learning French and preparing for the DELF A1 exam. Good luck!
As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, it’s more important than ever to have a deeper understanding of different perspectives and cultures. One way to do this is by learning a new language. Not only does language learning open up new opportunities for communication, but it also provides a unique window into the values, beliefs, and perspectives of other cultures. In this article, we’ll explore the benefits of learning a language for understanding different perspectives.
Expanding Your Worldview:
When you learn a new language, you’re not just learning new words and grammar rules – you’re also gaining insight into the cultural nuances that shape how people communicate and express themselves. This can help you develop a more nuanced understanding of different perspectives and ways of life. For example, learning the Spanish language can provide insight into Latin American culture, including its rich history, traditions, and values.
Breaking Down Barriers:
Language can be a powerful barrier to communication and understanding, particularly in situations where people are from different cultural backgrounds. However, by learning a new language, you can break down these barriers and forge deeper connections with people from different cultures. This can help to build trust, empathy, and understanding, which can be particularly important in today’s globalized world.
Learning from Different Perspectives:
Learning a language can also provide a way to learn from different perspectives and worldviews. For instance, when you learn Chinese, you expose yourself to an entirely distinct way of thinking and viewing the world compared to learning French. This process can help you develop a more well-rounded perspective and make you more adaptable and flexible in your thinking.
Understanding Cultural Nuances:
One of the most exciting aspects of language learning is discovering the nuances of different cultures. For example, in Japan, it’s considered impolite to blow your nose in public, while in many Latin American cultures, it’s customary to greet people with a hug or kiss on the cheek. Learning these cultural nuances can help you navigate social situations with more ease and confidence, and it can also deepen your understanding of different cultures and ways of life.
Building Empathy and Cultural Competence:
Lastly, learning a language can aid in building empathy and cultural competence, which are progressively crucial skills in today’s diverse and globalized world. By acquiring knowledge about different cultures and ways of life, you’ll become better equipped to understand and appreciate the experiences and perspectives of people from different backgrounds. This, in turn, can help you become a more effective communicator, problem-solver, and collaborator, both in your personal and professional life.
Learning a new language is a powerful way to broaden your perspectives and gain a deeper understanding of different cultures and ways of life. By breaking down language barriers, learning from different perspectives, and understanding cultural nuances, you can become a more well-rounded and empathetic individual.